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MPs launch inquiry into Home Office delivery of Brexit, submissions sought

Following on from the session last week in which I and others were called to give evidence to the Home Affairs Committee, a formal inquiry into the Home Office delivery of Brexit has now been launched. Written submissions are invited by the committee and further oral evidence will be heard. The terms of reference include but are not limited to: Does the Home Office have the capacity to register EU nationals already in the UK? What form should that process take and what risks need to be anticipated? What challenges does Brexit present for the Home Office’s effective management of immigration at the border and how might the Home Office…

19th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Theresa May’s open letter: what she said and what she meant

As I travel to Brussels today, I know that many people will be looking to us – the leaders of the 28 nations in the European Union – to demonstrate we are putting people first. I have a firm grasp of the technical detail. I have been clear throughout this process that citizens’ rights are my first priority. And I know my fellow leaders have the same objective: to safeguard the rights of EU nationals living in the UK and UK nationals living in the EU. I do not want to guarantee them in full, but do not wish that fact to be apparent. I want to give reassurance that this issue…

19th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

FOI response: waiting times for permanent residence certificates triple

Eight months and a warning from the Information Commissioner later, the Home Office has finally replied to my Freedom of Information request on waiting times for EU residence documents. The figures only go to the end of 2016 and it seems likely that waiting times have increased yet further since then. The number of applications for documents is soaring and the capacity of the Home Office to cope is highly questionable. The figures show that the average wait for all such documents has risen considerably since 2015, with an EEA permanent residence certificate taking 116 days to arrive by the end of last year – almost triple the time it…

18th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Self-sufficiency, health insurance and welfare benefits: the case of AMS

In a decision of 19 September 2017, Upper Tribunal Judge Ward dismissed a Dutch widow’s appeal against the refusal of her claim for state pension credit on the basis that she had no right to reside in the UK. Although a disappointing result for Mrs AMS, the case is a great starting point to remind ourselves of the meaning of “self-sufficiency” under EU law. It also reminds us that self-sufficient EU nationals may, in some circumstances, access welfare benefits. Background The claimant, a Netherlands national, is an 88-year-old widow. She was married to a British citizen who had served in the British armed forces and died in 1994. Her children…

17th October 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

How we overturned Sala in the Court of Appeal

The Court of Appeal (Etherton MR, Longmore LJ, Irwin LJ) heard the appeal against the findings in Sala yesterday. Those findings, briefly, are that by virtue of the discretion available to a decision-maker under regulation 17 of the Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006, a decision on an application under regulation 8 is not a decision which concerns the applicant’s entitlement to be issued with a residence card. Therefore it is not an “EEA decision” under regulation 2 and so is not appealable under regulation 26. Our position for the appellant was the same as the appellant’s position in Sala: that the regulations provide a right of appeal against an adverse decision on…

13th October 2017 By Rajiv Sharma

ILPA annual free movement seminar: report

What can immigration lawyers do when immigration law is uncertain? This was not, admittedly, the advertised theme of the Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association annual seminar on free movement, which took place on 4 October. But the enervating effects of unpredictability and ambiguity in immigration law and policy ran through most every contribution. Elspeth Guild’s opening remarks reminded us of the lack of legal certainty for EU citizens in the UK, with some clients beginning to “pack up and leave”. It was a point ably taken up by ILPA chair Adrian Berry, who took us at a rapid clip through the latest policy papers and declarations of the government. Even policy…

12th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Permanent residence through incapacity to work: no UK derogation

The claimant in SSWP v NZ (ESA) [2017] UKUT 0360 (AAC) is a Polish national who worked in a chip shop. On 4 September 2017, the Upper Tribunal released a third interim decision in the case, relating to a very specific issue: had the UK derogated from Article 17 of Directive 2004/38 by the Accession (Immigration and Worker Registration) Regulations 2004? The claimant’s employment had been registered belatedly under the Worker Registration Scheme, with effect from December 2006. She continued working until March 2007, when she went on maternity leave. After that she had been unwell for a while and made unsuccessful attempts to return to work, but her employment was terminated in November 2007….

3rd October 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

Home Office in breach of law over permanent residence waiting times

The Home Office has broken the law by failing to publish the waiting times faced by EU citizens trying to get residence documents. The Information Commissioner ruled that Amber Rudd’s department is in breach of the Freedom of Information Act, having sat on the request for seven months and counting. Free Movement’s founder and editor, Colin Yeo, wrote to the Home Office on 23 February asking for data showing average waiting times for the cards and certificates that prove an EU citizen’s right to live in the UK. By 30 March, officials at Marsham Street had acknowledged that the request would not be answered within the 20 working days demanded…

2nd October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Citizens’ rights: update after fourth round of Brexit negotiations

The fourth round of Brexit negotiations are over, with some signs of progress on the future status of EU citizens living in the UK. At the end of August, the EU-UK joint comparison of negotiating positions on citizens’ rights showed some 30 issues highlighted in red, indicating no agreement. This has been cut by about half in the latest document, showing the position at the end of September. Enforcement: “direct effect” conceded, CJEU jurisdiction not David Davis uses the words May did not over implementing withdrawal agreement in domestic law: "Direct effect." — Matthew Holehouse (@mattholehouse) September 28, 2017 Both the Brexit Secretary, for the UK, and the European Commission chief…

28th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Tribunal: Home Office must prove present risk to deport EU citizens

In the very recent case of Arranz (EEA Regulations – deportation – test) [2017] UKUT 294 (IAC) President McCloskey set out the correct approach to EU law deportations. The official headnote instructs us: (i) The burden of proving that a person represents a genuine, present and sufficiently threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society under Regulation 21(5)(c) of the EEA Regulations rests on the Secretary of State. (ii) The standard of proof is the balance of probabilities. (iii) Membership of an organisation proscribed under the laws of a foreign country does not without more satisfy the aforementioned test. (iv) The “Bouchereau” exception is no longer good law: CS…

28th September 2017 By Colin Yeo

Home Office offers dubious assurances on fingerprints and ID cards for EU citizens

Campaign group the3million has issued a statement on the latest plans for settled status following a meeting with the Home Office. Some clarifications were made during a meeting between the Home Office and the3million regarding some false information circulating around the future criteria required for all of us after Brexit to obtain the documentation providing evidence of our rights. The Home Office has confirmed in accordance with the Policy Paper (of 26th June 2017) and subsequent negotiations with the Commission on Citizens’ Rights its position that EU citizens: Will not have to prove CSI Will not have to meet an income threshold Will not have to submit finger prints Will not be…

26th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

What does Theresa May’s Florence speech mean for EU citizens?

Theresa May exercised her free movement rights with a trip to Florence on Friday to deliver a much-anticipated speech on Brexit. Conciliatory in tone and significant on the question of the ‘divorce bill’, the Prime Minister’s comments also touched on the rights of EU citizens in the UK, and on the future of free movement after Brexit. On the former, warm words were not accompanied by the practical proposals demanded by EU leaders. On the latter, a Brexit “implementation period” of around two years holds out the prospect of continued free movement until 2021, but questions remain about the operation of EU law during that period. Citizens’ rights: still no role…

26th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006 continue to apply for appeals says tribunal

Pretty obscure looking at first glance, this one: TM (EEA nationals – meaning; NI practitioners : Zimbabwe) [2017] UKUT 165 (IAC). So much so I confess I overlooked it. Firstly, some dual national British-EEA nationals were protected from the UK’s arguably over zealous implementation of McCarthy. I’ve had to advise on this before and it is a very limited group. Secondly, and much more importantly to day to day practice. the Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006 are apparently preserved for appeals (or rights of appeal) already commenced on 1 February 2017, which was not the case when the 2006 regulations replaced the predecessor 2000 regulations (see MG and VC (EEA Regulations 2006; “conducive”…

19th September 2017 By Colin Yeo

Leaked immigration document suggests huge rise in European criminal deportation after Brexit

The recently leaked government immigration proposals indicate that European nationals who commit crime in the UK will be subject to the same automatic deportation rules as non-European nationals after Brexit. The UK Borders Act 2007 imposes a legal duty on the Home Office to bring deportation proceedings against any foreign national convicted of a crime and sentenced to 12 months or more in prison. These are referred to as “automatic deportation”: see section 32 of the UK Borders Act 2007. There is currently an exception for those resident under EU law (section 33(4)) but this will end with Brexit when EU law ceases to apply. 12 month sentences are imposed…

13th September 2017 By Nick Nason

Leaked immigration plans suggest Thelma & Louise Brexit for UK

Forget “hard Brexit” and “soft Brexit”. The leaked proposals for a post-Brexit immigration system suggest the pedal is already to the metal for full Thelma & Louise Brexit. The Brexit to-do list is the length of a constantly unravelling ball of string. One of the many items on that list is deciding what the post-Brexit immigration system will look like. Yesterday we caught a glimpse of recent thinking at one of the key departments responsible, the Home Office. Essentially, those responsible for the 82 page proposal, dated August 2017, want to sever ties between the UK and EU. There are concessions in the paper. It is accepted that different rules…

6th September 2017 By Colin Yeo

Upper Tribunal on readmission of EU nationals to attend deportation appeal hearings

The UK now removes EU citizens and family members before their deportation appeal takes place. Obviously, this interferes with the life that the person has established in the UK (job and home may be lost, for example), in effect prejudges the outcome of the appeal, has a drastic impact on family members and also interferes somewhat with preparing the appeal. However, it is possible for such an individual to re-enter the UK for the purpose of attending the appeal hearing, for example to give evidence. In R (on the application of Gabor) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Reg 29AA: interpretation) [2017] UKUT 00287 (IAC) the Upper Tribunal addresses…

24th August 2017 By Colin Yeo

What is the law governing the deportation of EU nationals?

Where a European national commits a crime in the UK and is sentenced to a term of imprisonment, they will often be subject to deportation proceedings. The protections afforded to them (and to British nationals who commit crime in European countries) are contained within a European Directive (2004/38/EC of 29 April 2004), and brought into domestic law by the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2016. We consider the protections afforded to European nationals against expulsion from the UK, the circumstances in which the protection can be invoked (and, arguably, lost), and consider the future of deportation law for European nationals if and when the UK leaves the Union. European rules…

23rd August 2017 By Nick Nason

A genuine couple can enter in a marriage of convenience, says High Court

A couple may enter into a “marriage of convenience”, even if they are in a genuine relationship. This was, in summary, the finding of the High Court in the case of Molina, R (On the Application Of) v The Secretary of State for the Home Department [2017] EWHC 1730 (Admin). Background The Appellant, Mr Molina is a Bolivian national. He entered the UK illegally in April 2007 using a false Bolivian passport. In April 2013, he met an Italian national, Ms Salguero, and they entered in a relationship in October 2013. They moved in together in September 2014 and planned to get married on 19 May 2015. On 26 February…

16th August 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

Operation Nexus police/immigration joint working unsuccessfully challenged in High Court

In The Centre for Advice On Individual Rights In Europe v The Secretary of State for the Home Department & Anor [2017] EWHC 1878 (Admin) (21 July 2017) the excellent AIRE centre brought a challenge to the way Operation Nexus operates in respect of European and EEA nationals. Operation Nexus has been covered previously by Free Movement, most recently reporting on the belated released of guidance, with calls for both evidence and funding for this recent challenge publicised via the blog. What is Nexus? As detailed in previous writing on the subject, and as set out in this judgment [6] Operation Nexus has three strands or elements; only the first…

10th August 2017 By Nick Nason

Self-employed workers do not have the same rights as employees under EU law, confirms the Court of Appeal

In the case of Hrabkova v Secretary of State for Work and Pension [2017] EWCA Civ 794, the Court of Appeal confirmed once again that self-employed individuals do not have the same rights as workers under EU law. The specific question in this case was whether a person with a child at school who had been self employed and ceased work might be entitled to claim Employment Support Allowance. Some legal background It might be useful to start by setting out the law underpinning this case. By virtue of Article 10 of the EU Regulation 492/2011, the child of an EEA national who works or has worked in the UK…

2nd July 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

Analysis: what is the UK proposing for EU citizens in the UK and British citizens in the EU?

On 26 June 2017, over a year after the Brexit referendum result, the government finally published its proposals to “safeguard the position of EU citizens living in the UK and UK nationals living in the EU”. Here we take a look at the details of the proposals. It is important to remember that at the moment these are just proposals by the UK. They have been tabled as part of a negotiation process. The UK proposals may change, either becoming more generous as part of the negotiation or being withdrawn partially or in full if the negotiations fail. The EU has already made public its own comprehensive proposals, which are…

27th June 2017 By Colin Yeo

Can a person granted subsidiary protection be transferred under Dublin III?

Case C-36/17: Daher Muse Ahmed v Bundesrepublik Deutschland The EU does not want asylum seekers to ‘shop around’ its Member States. To this end, various Regulations exist to prevent someone who has already claimed asylum in one Member State from subsequently doing so in another. But what if an applicant has claimed before, the result of which was being granted not refugee status, but subsidiary protection (‘humanitarian protection’ in the UK)? The CJEU has replied to a reference from the German administrative court to deliver its answer. Background facts The applicant claimed asylum in Germany. The German authorities found that he had previously claimed asylum in Italy. His application in…

1st June 2017 By Thomas Beamont

Alternative options for EU partners: making an application under Appendix FM

Now that the election manifestos have been officially published we have an indication what Labour and Conservative have planned for EU nationals living in Britain. While the Labour manifesto confirmed a pledge to immediately guarantee existing rights for all EU nationals living in Britain the polls continue to point to a Conservative win, with a manifesto that does not guarantee existing rights but seeks to ‘secure entitlements’. This wording suggests those who have yet to establish a “right of residence” will not be covered by the Conservative pledge. In EU law, any EU national has the right of admission to another Member State and can physically remain in that Member…

31st May 2017 By Chris Desira

UK wrong to deny residence rights for non-EEA family members of dual nationals

The question about what rights are enjoyed by an EU citizen who naturalises as a British citizen becoming a dual citizen is critically important in the context of Brexit. We previously gave some context on why the UK denies dual citizens’ rights under EU law and why many lawyers believe that approach is wrong. This issue was put to the Court of Justice in the case of Lounes C-165/16 has now received a formal Opinion by the Advocate-General suggesting that the UK was wrong to deny EU rights to dual citizens and their family members. Advocate General Opinions The Court of Justice interprets EU law to make sure it is…

31st May 2017 By Chris Desira

Is the triggering of Article 50 a good argument for making a reference to The Court Of Justice now? – Monckton Chambers

Also well worth a read: As all readers of this post will know, the United Kingdom gave notice of its decision to withdraw from the EU on 29 March 2017. Under Article 50 TEU, that means that (subject to a different date being provided for in a withdrawal agreement or an extension by unanimity) the UK will cease to be subject to the Treaties on 30 March 2019.Unless any different provision is made in a withdrawal agreement, the Court of Justice of the EU will cease, on that date, to have jurisdiction to rule on questions of EU law referred to it by UK courts under Article 267 TFEU.Since the…

24th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

EU can point to clear precedents in Brexit court showdown | MLex market insight

Worth a read: The Brexit negotiations are heading for an early battle. The remaining EU states on Monday agreed that the rights of EU citizens living in the UK after its withdrawal should fall under the jurisdiction of the EU Court of Justice, or CJEU. The UK wants to guarantee individuals’ rights, but rejects the oversight of the bloc’s top-tier court in Luxembourg. “The simple truth is: we are leaving,” Brexit secretary David Davis has said. “We are going to be outside the reach of the European court.” European Commission negotiators will be able to cite previous rulings that have set precedents and conditions for granting the CJEU jurisdiction over…

24th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

UK law found to be more generous than EU law for jobseekers acquiring permanent residence

The case of GE v. SSWP (ESA) [2017] UKUT 145 (ACC) sets out how the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006 (since replaced with the 2016 version), are in some areas, more generous than EU law itself by concluding that an initial right of residence or status as a job-seeker could count towards permanent residence for an EEA national. Background The case is a decision of the Upper Tribunal relating to the entitlement of an EEA benefit claimant to Employment Support Allowance (ESA). The facts of the case will not be of significance in the immigration field, except to note that it was important to establish the EEA nationals statuses…

22nd May 2017 By Chris Desira

Capparrelli (EEA Nationals – British Nationality) [2017] UKUT 162 (IAC) -Comment by Ian Macdonald QC

Ian Macdonald QC has sent in an interesting note on the controversial Capparrelli determination. For background, see original Free Movement write up here: Tribunal finds Home Office has wrongly issued British passports to EU citizens and their children. Section 1 of the British Nationality Act 1981 (the “1981 Act”), the subject matter whereof is “Acquisition by birth or adoption”, provides: “(1) A person born in the United Kingdom after commencement, or in a qualifying territory on or after the appointed day, shall be a British citizen if at the time of the birth his father or mother is— … (b) settled in the United Kingdom or that territory.” Section 1 came…

18th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Tribunal rules a Big Issue seller has no right of residence in EU law

Seems like a dubious decision to me on the facts, but it cannot be faulted for rehearsing the relevant law quite thoroughly. The lady in question was earning a steady £50 per week working a 40 hour week and the First-tier dismissed the appeal on the basis that the work was not “genuine and effective”: 19. I considered the totality of the appellant’s family financial circumstances. The appellant’s rent was met by Housing Benefit and she claims Tax Credits of about £150 per week. The appellant’s earnings from selling the Big Issue make up the remainder of the family income and I hold on the balance of probabilities that the appellant’s…

18th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

New CJEU case extends Zambrano rights of residence, emphasises best interests of children

In a new case, Chavez-Vilchez and Others v Netherlands C-133/15, the Court of Justice of the European Union has significantly extended Zambrano rights beyond those so far recognised by the Home Office and UK courts. The case offers far better guidance than was available in previous cases and emphasises that the impact on children is a primary consideration. Background The case involved seven mothers who had applied to the Dutch authorities for residence on the basis of being the primary carers of young Dutch children. They had all been refused residency because it was said that the fathers of the children could care for them, and therefore the children would not…

16th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Why the UK and EU cannot easily agree on EU citizens’ rights: UK vs EU law

Theresa May refused to guarantee the rights of EU citizens living in the UK but did at least assure them that their situation would be a early negotiating priority. That perhaps was not terribly reassuring given that Theresa May also suggested that everyone should prepare for the UK to crash out of the EU with no deal at all and then called an election which has inevitably delayed the negotiations. Already it is reported that the talks on the rights of EU citizens seem to have hit a significant stumbling block. This is by no means insoluable and negotiations are by their very nature bound to include differences of approach which need…

3rd May 2017 By Colin Yeo

New EEA(PR) application form guidance published

Most Home Office application forms are accompanied with guidance explaining how to make a valid application, and the EEA(PR) application form is no different. While the EEA(PR) form was last updated in March 2016 the guidance accompanying that form was last updated in December 2015 and so an update has been well overdue. The Home Office have finally got around to that with new guidance issued this month. Surprisingly for the Home Office, the new guidance provides some helpful pointers and also eases the evidential burden for some requirements, bringing it closer to, but not quite in accordance with, EU law. Unsurprisingly for the Home Office, the guidance has more than doubled…

27th April 2017 By Chris Desira

Tribunal finds Home Office has wrongly issued British passports to EU citizens and their children

In a controversial determination, the President of the Upper Tribunal Immigration and Asylum Chamber, Mr Justice McCloskey, has found that the Home Office has wrongly issued British passports to hundreds or even thousands of children of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens born in the UK before 2 October 2000. The case is Capparrelli (EEA Nationals – British Nationality) [2017] UKUT 162 (IAC). If the determination is correct, which is questionable, it could also mean that almost no EU or EEA citizen could ever have qualified for British citizenship and that British citizenship may have been wrongly conferred on tens of thousands of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens. Remarkably, considering the exceptionally broad impact…

26th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Reference made to CJEU on extended family members, Surinder Singh and appeal rights

The case is UK v Banger C-89/17. Text of the reference here: Do the principles contained in the decision in Immigration Appeal Tribunal and Surinder Singh, ex parte Secretary of State for the Home Department (Case C-370/90) [1992] operate so as to require a Member State to issue or, alternatively, facilitate the provision of a residence authorisation to the non-Union unmarried partner of a EU citizen who, having exercised his Treaty right of freedom of movement to work in a second Member State, returns with such partner to the Member State of his nationality? Alternatively, is there a requirement to issue or, alternatively, facilitate the provision of such residence authorisation…

26th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Home Office suggests EU nationals sign up for email alerts not apply for residence documents

The Home Office is now advising EU nationals to sign up for Government email alerts rather than applying for residence documents as proof of status. The guidance was issued on 7 April 2017 and is a tacit admission that the Home Office is overwhelmed by applications from EU citizens and their families. The guidance is not mandatory; EU citizens can still apply for residence documents if they want to, and indeed EU citizens have to apply for these documents if they want to apply for naturalisation as British citizens. The latest quarterly immigration statistics certainly showed a dramatic rise in applications for permanent residence documents: Given that the Government has: refused…

25th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Ankara Agreement standstill clause does not apply to settlement applications says tribunal

Official headnote: (I) The settlement of migrant Turkish nationals and their family members does not fall within the scope of the “stand-still clause” in Article 41(1) of the Ankara Agreement (ECAA) Additional Protocol as it is not necessary for the exercise of freedom of establishment under Article 13. Thus the status of settlement in the UK for such Turkish nationals and their family members cannot derive in any way from the ECAA or its Additional Protocol; (II) Where a Turkish national who exercised rights under the ECAA has been granted settlement in the UK the rights of such person and his family members are not derived from the ECAA or its Additional…

24th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Brexit Information · Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association

Very useful resource page from ILPA on EU rights of residence including a new series of fact sheets on: Brexit 1: The Rights of EEA and Swiss Nationals in the UK Brexit 2: EEA and Swiss nationals and their family members Brexit 3: EU rights of residence as a worker Brexit 4: EU rights of residence as a self-employed person Brexit 5: EU rights of residence as a student Brexit 6: EU Rights of Residence as a Self-Sufficient Person Brexit 7: Comprehensive Sickness Insurance Brexit 8: Permanent Residence under EU law Brexit 9: British Citizenship for EEA and Swiss Nationals Source: Brexit Information · Info Service · Immigration Law Practitioners’…

20th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Do dual EU-UK citizens have rights under EU law?

The question of what rights are enjoyed by an EU citizen who naturalises as a British citizen and becomes a dual citizen has become a critically important one in the context of Brexit. There is huge uncertainty amongst EU citizens and their family members living in the UK about their future status and there is huge interest in the possibility of naturalising as British citizens. At the same time, though, it has to be said, the number of EU citizens successfully applying for naturalisation as British actually fell between 2015 and 2016, from 17,158 to 14,901. This was presumably because of additional hurdles the UK Government has erected in the way of EU citizens seeking…

3rd April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Reference made to CJEU on rights of appeal for extended family members

Anthony Metzer QC led Sanaz Saifolahi, on behalf of the Respondent, before the President of the Upper Tribunal, Mr Justice McCloskey, on the application of the Surinder Singh rationale to the unmarried partner of a British National. There are currently no reported cases on this issue. The Respondent is in a longstanding durable relationship with a British National. The couple had previously lived in The Netherlands before returning to the UK. The Respondent then applied for a Residence Card relying on Surinder Singh.   The Secretary of State for the Home Department (now the Appellant) refused to grant a Residence Card, on the basis that Regulation 9 of the Immigration (EEA)…

29th March 2017 By Sanaz Saifolahi

Home Office say it is “longstanding practice” not to remove EU citizens lacking comprehensive sickness insurance

In a written Parliamentary answer yesterday the Government stated self sufficient or studying EU citizens without comprehensive sickness insurance (CSI) are “not lawfully resident” in the UK and “may be liable for removal” but that it is “longstanding Home Office practice” not to seek removal because “it is relatively straight forward to rectify.” The implication seems to be that those without CSI are expected to “rectify” their situation. Employed and self employment EU citizens are not required to possess comprehensive sickness insurance. This seems to confirm my analysis in an earlier legal briefing: the Home Office considers that Articles 20 and 21 TFEU, which establish the right to move to and reside in other…

28th March 2017 By Colin Yeo
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