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  • Comprehensive 122 page guide to the Immigration Act 2016 covering illegal working offences, offences for landlords and employers, enforcement powers, appeal right changes, immigration bail and more.

    Once, the “hostile environment” was for terrorists. Then it was for serious and organised crime. Now, it is for migrants. In this respect, the Immigration Act 2016 builds on the poisonous foundations of the Immigration Act 2014.

    This ebook runs through the 2016 Act section by section, providing an explanation of the changes made, setting out amended versions of relevant legal provisions and providing examples of how new provisions might work in practice.

    The most notable innovations include the new offence of illegal working, new offences for landlords and employers, extensive new enforcement powers for immigration officers, extensive new maritime enforcement powers, extensive new powers of detention and coercion associated with the new concept of immigration bail, further evisceration of appeal rights and asylum support and extensive new money raising powers. These are all intended to create a hostile environment for migrants in the United Kingdom.

    Meanwhile, immigration officers have increasingly wide police-like powers, but with less training, less experience and with no tradition of policing by consent underpinning their work.

    The Act can be seen as a trend towards what might be termed coercive justice. The powers that are conferred on immigration officials are discretionary and draconian and it would be impossible for them to be enforced equally against all, irrespective of class, gender and race. Instead, the powers should be seen as additions to the toolbox available to immigration officials when they encounter a person considered undesirable. It will be the young, the black, the male and the working class who are more likely to find themselves on the receiving end of this “justice”. That is not to say that others are unaffected, just that certain groups are disproportionately affected.

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