The Youth Mobility Scheme is one of the friendlier parts of the Immigration Rules. The route is designed to enable young people to experience life in the UK and is relatively straightforward to apply for, at least when compared with other options for economic migration. Crucially, there is no requirement to have an employer to sponsor the visa or even for the applicant to intend to work in the UK, which makes it much more flexible than other routes.
The big drawback to the Youth Mobility visa is that it is only available to citizens of a select list of countries. The list is currently in Appendix G to the Immigration Rules, while the other requirements for this visa are in Part 6A of the Rules. From 1 December 2020, these two documents are being replaced and the Youth Mobility requirements will instead be in Appendix Youth Mobility Scheme: eligible nationals and Appendix T5 (Temporary Worker) Youth Mobility Scheme. This article discusses the rules in force from 1 December.
Appendix T5 (Temporary Worker) Youth Mobility Scheme says:
The applicant must be one of the following:
(a) a British Overseas Citizen, British Overseas Territories Citizen or British National (Overseas); or
(b) a national of a country or the holder of a passport issued by a territory, listed in Annex Youth Mobility Scheme: eligible nationals.
Only 16 people with one of the rare forms of British nationality listed at (a) have been issued with a Youth Mobility visa in the past decade. Most of the take-up is from citizens of the countries listed in Appendix Youth Mobility Scheme: eligible nationals. Each of these countries has an annual quota of Youth Mobility visas that can be granted to its citizens:
- Australia – 30,000 places
- New Zealand – 13,000 places
- Canada – 5,000 places
- Japan – 1,000 places
- Monaco – 1,000 places
- Taiwan – 1,000 places
- Hong Kong – 1,000 places
- South Korea – 1,000 places
- San Marino – 1,000 places (must have a Certificate of Sponsorship from home country)
The effect of the cap on potential applicants varies depending on the applicant’s country of nationality. Australia, New Zealand and Canada have large allocations which are never filled: for example, around 9,000 – 10,000 Youth Mobility visas are issued to Australians every year, well below the 30,000 quota.
By contrast, the Home Office operates a lottery for applicants from Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong and South Korea. Applicants register their interest by email and the Home Office distributes “invitations to apply” at random.
Applicants must be over 18 and under the age of 31. Applicants who are 17 can apply but only get entry clearance from their 18th birthday.
Applicants must demonstrate that they have savings of £2,530 (up from £1,890 under the rules in force before 1 December 2020). This is calculated using the exchange rate on the date the application was submitted. The detailed rules on maintenance for this route are in Appendix Finance, which says:
Funds may be held in any form of personal bank or building society account (including current, deposit, savings, pension from which the funds can be withdrawn or investment account) provided the account allows the funds to be accessed immediately.
The applicant must have held the funds in such an account for 28 days.
The general grounds for refusal apply. In addition, there are several special reasons for refusing a Youth Mobility application.
First, you cannot get a Youth Mobility visa twice. If you apply a second time then you would be refused even if you meet the requirements. Importantly, though, this only applies if you actually spent time in the UK on the visa, so if someone applies for and gets a Youth Mobility visa but decided not to use it, then they could still get another one the following year if they wished.
Second, applicants must not have children under the age of 18 who live with them or are financially dependent on them. Children born to Youth Mobility visa holders during their stay in the UK can however be added to the visa as a dependant.
Finally, the Immigration Rules only allow for entry clearance and do not provide for permission to stay (formerly called “leave to remain”). Therefore it is not possible to switch onto a Youth Mobility visa if you are already in the UK.
Conditions of leave
Successful applicants get two years’ entry clearance. There is no possibility of renewing the visa and no possibility of applying for indefinite leave to remain. As with almost all other routes, entry clearance will be granted subject to a no recourse to public funds condition.
There are very few limits on what a successful applicant can do with their two years in the UK and no requirement to do anything at all.
A few select forms of work are prohibited. Youth Mobility visa holders cannot work as a professional sportsperson/coach or work as a doctor or dentist in training unless their degree is from the UK or a UK recognised institution. There are also some slightly bizarre constraints on self-employment:
(b) no self-employment, except where the following conditions are met:
(i) the person has no premises which they own, other than their home, from which they carry out their business; and
(ii) the total value of any equipment used in the business does not exceed £5,000; and
(iii) the person has no employees
Youth Mobility visa holders can also use their two years to study in the UK (except for courses which require an Academic Technology Approval Scheme clearance certificate).
Making an application
The requirements for a Youth Mobility visa are much easier to fulfil than almost any other UK immigration route. It is also cheaper than most, with a £244 application fee and a reduced rate of the Immigration Health Surcharge (£470 per year rather than £624). That makes the total cost of the two-year visa around £1,200.
Applications are made online. Unsurprisingly, the success rate is very high. Last year around 20,000 Youth Mobility applications were granted, and 300 refused.