New ebook now available: Naturalising as a British citizen

Our new ebook guide Naturalising as a British citizen is now available for purchase for £9.99 (free for Free Movement members). For most people, an application for naturalisation is something they can complete on their own. This ebook helps individual applicants to do just that. In 2016 just shy of 150,000 foreign nationals naturalised as British citizens. But 8% of applications were rejected, the majority because of failure to meet the “good character” and residence requirements. As the cost of an unsuccessful application is almost £1,300 – this processing fee is retained by the Home Office regardless of the outcome – £9.99 is a worthwhile investment for peace of mind. This comprehensive…

19th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

MPs launch inquiry into Home Office delivery of Brexit, submissions sought

Following on from the session last week in which I and others were called to give evidence to the Home Affairs Committee, a formal inquiry into the Home Office delivery of Brexit has now been launched. Written submissions are invited by the committee and further oral evidence will be heard. The terms of reference include but are not limited to: Does the Home Office have the capacity to register EU nationals already in the UK? What form should that process take and what risks need to be anticipated? What challenges does Brexit present for the Home Office’s effective management of immigration at the border and how might the Home Office…

19th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Theresa May’s open letter: what she said and what she meant

As I travel to Brussels today, I know that many people will be looking to us – the leaders of the 28 nations in the European Union – to demonstrate we are putting people first. I have a firm grasp of the technical detail. I have been clear throughout this process that citizens’ rights are my first priority. And I know my fellow leaders have the same objective: to safeguard the rights of EU nationals living in the UK and UK nationals living in the EU. I do not want to guarantee them in full, but do not wish that fact to be apparent. I want to give reassurance that this issue…

19th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Anti-trafficking victories in Supreme Court: Reyes and Benkharbouche

Today, Anti-Slavery Day, the Supreme Court has handed down judgments in cases that look at the extent to which diplomatic and state immunity allow diplomats to traffic and enslave their domestic workers with impunity. Traffickers will sleep a little less easily in their beds tonight. In Reyes v Al-Malki [2017] UKSC 61, Philippine national Cherrylyn Reyes brought a claim before the Employment Tribunal against the Saudi Arabian diplomat and his wife who had employed her at their home in London. She claimed she had been trafficked, that she had suffered racial discrimination and harassment, and that she had not been paid the national living wage. The couple claimed immunity from civil suit.  The Supreme…

18th October 2017 By Alison Harvey

FOI response: waiting times for permanent residence certificates triple

Eight months and a warning from the Information Commissioner later, the Home Office has finally replied to my Freedom of Information request on waiting times for EU residence documents. The figures only go to the end of 2016 and it seems likely that waiting times have increased yet further since then. The number of applications for documents is soaring and the capacity of the Home Office to cope is highly questionable. The figures show that the average wait for all such documents has risen considerably since 2015, with an EEA permanent residence certificate taking 116 days to arrive by the end of last year – almost triple the time it…

18th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

August 2017 immigration update podcast

Welcome to the August 2017 edition of the Free Movement immigration update podcast. This month I’m starting with a run through of a few relevant bits of news and some blog posts to highlight rather than cover in depth, then moving on to a series of cases and posts about deportation, some material on different aspects of family immigration including the MM case and the financial rules for spouses, and ending with some human rights and a few procedural issues. There’s quite a lot to fit in! The material is all drawn from the August 2017 blog posts on Free Movement. If you would like to claim CPD points for reading…

18th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

“Good deeds” immigration lawyer struck off over judicial reviews

An immigration lawyer praised for his “good deeds” among the Chinese community has been struck off by the Solicitors Disciplinary Tribunal. Vay Sui Ip, a partner at Manchester firm Sandbrook Solicitors, was prosecuted by the Solicitors Regulation Authority over judicial reviews issued as a means of “frustrating deportations“. The tribunal, to cut a 96-page judgment short, agreed with the SRA that Mr Ip had breached various of its rules, chief among them that he had applied for judicial reviews that were “totally without merit” and “engaged in a systematic course of conduct designed to undermine the immigration system”. Other allegations were not proven. Referencing its duty to maintain the reputation…

17th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

ILPA funding available for strategic litigation

Grants of up to £30,000 are now available through the Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association to promote the rights of vulnerable migrant children and young adults. ILPA has relaunched the Strategic Legal Fund for Vulnerable Young Migrants. The fund will provide grants for organisations to: undertake pre-litigation research, or make third party interventions to ensure that the key legal points are made in existing cases. The first deadline for applications for the current funding round is 3 November 2017. More details are available on the project’s dedicated website:

17th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Self-sufficiency, health insurance and welfare benefits: the case of AMS

In a decision of 19 September 2017, Upper Tribunal Judge Ward dismissed a Dutch widow’s appeal against the refusal of her claim for state pension credit on the basis that she had no right to reside in the UK. Although a disappointing result for Mrs AMS, the case is a great starting point to remind ourselves of the meaning of “self-sufficiency” under EU law. It also reminds us that self-sufficient EU nationals may, in some circumstances, access welfare benefits. Background The claimant, a Netherlands national, is an 88-year-old widow. She was married to a British citizen who had served in the British armed forces and died in 1994. Her children…

17th October 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

Why is the Home Office separating a British man from his wife when she is still breastfeeding their daughter?

This week the story of Dan Newton and his family has hit the newspapers. This post explains why the Home Office has acted as it has. It is not a mistake. Since harsh new rules were introduced in 2012, UK immigration policy does not usually allow British citizens working abroad to return to the UK if they have a foreign spouse. In effect, British citizens are exiled from their own country if they marry abroad. The Independent reports that Mr Newton is British and is married to Carla Zamora, an Ecuadorian citizen. They have three children together. All the children are British citizens. Mr Newton and his wife lived together…

16th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

In case you missed it: the week in immigration news

Free Movement’s pick of the past week’s media reporting on immigration and asylum. The fallout from now-notorious Home Office deportation letters, sent in error to EU citizens over the summer, continued last week as the government agreed to compensate 106 recipients of instructions to leave the country (Daily Mirror). Home Office errors continue all the same. The Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, no less, helped to rescue the wedding day of an Irish/Japanese couple after the bride-to-be was denied a visa due to a “misunderstanding” (Irish News). Also in Northern Ireland, a Spanish citizen accused the department of “treating her family like criminals” during a lengthy dispute about permanent…

16th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

How we overturned Sala in the Court of Appeal

The Court of Appeal (Etherton MR, Longmore LJ, Irwin LJ) heard the appeal against the findings in Sala yesterday. Those findings, briefly, are that by virtue of the discretion available to a decision-maker under regulation 17 of the Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006, a decision on an application under regulation 8 is not a decision which concerns the applicant’s entitlement to be issued with a residence card. Therefore it is not an “EEA decision” under regulation 2 and so is not appealable under regulation 26. Our position for the appellant was the same as the appellant’s position in Sala: that the regulations provide a right of appeal against an adverse decision on…

13th October 2017 By Rajiv Sharma

ILPA annual free movement seminar: report

What can immigration lawyers do when immigration law is uncertain? This was not, admittedly, the advertised theme of the Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association annual seminar on free movement, which took place on 4 October. But the enervating effects of unpredictability and ambiguity in immigration law and policy ran through most every contribution. Elspeth Guild’s opening remarks reminded us of the lack of legal certainty for EU citizens in the UK, with some clients beginning to “pack up and leave”. It was a point ably taken up by ILPA chair Adrian Berry, who took us at a rapid clip through the latest policy papers and declarations of the government. Even policy…

12th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

What are the terms of the immigration “amnesty” for survivors of the Grenfell Tower disaster?

The Home Office has revised its policy on the immigration “amnesty” for survivors of the Grenfell Tower fire. In short, the government was offering a grant (or extension) of 12 months leave to enter or remain, with access to public funds included as well as the right to work. The 12 months limited leave can now be renewed so that there is a pathway to settlement – Indefinite Leave to Remain – after five years. Applications must be made before 30 November 2017. There is no formal application form that must be used and no fee is payable; nor is the Immigration Health Surcharge. This policy is additional to the government’s previous…

11th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Book review: The Making of an Immigration Judge by James Hanratty RD

James Hanratty RD, known as a compassionate and sometimes rather unconventional judge, will be a familiar name and indeed face to any London-based barrister specialising in immigration work. I for one was relieved rather than panicked when I would see that he was my client’s allocated judge in the morning on arrival at Hatton Cross. Published by Quartet, Mr Hanratty’s (I cannot really call him anything else I’m afraid) memoir is entitled The Making of an Immigration Judge. It covers Mr Hanratty’s early years, his first steps in law, his work at the Lord Chancellor’s Department, his two separate postings to Hong Kong and his membership of various private clubs….

11th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Immigration and nationality law following surrogacy agreements

A surrogacy arrangement is, broadly speaking, where a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. Under section 2(1) of the Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985, it is a criminal offence for a person on a commercial basis to initiate or take part in a surrogacy agreement in the UK. Many families in the UK opt for countries where commercial surrogacy is lawful, such as the USA and Ukraine. However, children born out of surrogacy arrangements will not necessarily be born British, even when the commissioning parents are British. This is mainly because of the definition of “father” and “mother” under British nationality law. Questions then arise as to the…

11th October 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

High Court defeat for Home Office over torture policy

The Home Office has lost a judicial review over its controversial change to the definition of torture in a claim brought by unlawfully detained torture victims. In short, the Home Office changed its definition of “torture” in September 2016 to exclude acts of torture committed by non-state actors. This meant that individuals who had been tortured by a non-state group, such as rebel soldiers, paramilitaries or people traffickers, could in future be detained by the Home Office. The judicial review case was brought by several such individuals who would previously not have been detained, but were under the new policy. This new approach was consistent with the definition of torture…

10th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Nick Blake QC retires from High Court

The Honourable Sir Nicholas John Gorrod Blake retired from the High Court (Queen’s Bench) with effect from 3 October 2017. Sir Nicholas Blake (68) was called to the Bar (M) in 1974, took Silk in 1994 and was elected a Bencher in 2002. He was appointed an Assistant Recorder in 1999, a Recorder in 2000 and a Deputy High Court Judge in 2002. He was appointed a Judge of the High Court (Queen’s Bench) in 2007 and was the President of the Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber) from 2010 to 2013. Known also as a leading member of the immigration team at 2 Garden Court Chambers before leaving to…

10th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

European Court of Human Rights condemns Spain for collectively deporting migrants

In ND & NT v Spain, the European Court of Human Rights decided that the expulsion of two sub-Saharan migrants from a set of barriers surrounding the Spanish territory of Melilla breached their rights under Article 4 of Protocol 4 ECHR (prohibition of collective expulsions of aliens) and Article 13 ECHR (right to an effective remedy). Around this time two years ago, I worked on the intervention in this case at the AIRE Centre under Nuala Mole (who has just been named the FT Legal Innovator of the Year) and Markella Papadouli. This just shows how long it takes from the start of the legal process at the European Court…

10th October 2017 By Paul Erdunast

Garden Court barristers uncover immigration check “racial profiling”

Two immigration law practitioners, Chris Williams and Nicola Braganza, made headlines today for their part in an investigation highlighting “racial profiling” in UK immigration checks. The pair, both Garden Court tenants, worked with the Bureau of Investigative Journalism to analyse Home Office data showing that almost one in five people stopped for an “intelligence-led” check on their immigration status is in fact a British citizen. “The obvious inference”, Williams and Braganza told the Bureau, “is that those who look like immigrants are targeted”. The story also features in today’s Guardian. The figures, obtained by The Bristol Cable under the Freedom of Information Act, show that almost 19% of stops by immigration officials…

9th October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Tribunal criticises government lawyers for “trench warfare” mentality and “inappropriate” conduct

In one of his final judgments as outgoing President, Mr Justice McCloskey launched a bitter broadside at the conduct of government lawyers in long-running litigation over the entry of refugee children. While the criticism of the solicitors at the Government Legal Department and of previous barristers instructed for the Home Office is robust and unambiguous, the background is hard to discern from the judgment itself, which arises essentially as satellite litigation around the failure of the Home Office to comply with previous orders made by the tribunal. The case is R (on the application of AM and others) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (liberty to apply –…

9th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Book review: A Guide to the Immigration Act 2016 by Alison Harvey and Zoe Harper

If you want to look up how the Immigration Act 2016 works in practice, A Guide to the Immigration Act 2016 by Alison Harvey and Zoe Harper is the definitive guide to the legislation. More comprehensive than my own introductory ebook to the Act, Harvey and Harper dive straight into the detail. Every single section of the Act is set out, prefaced with commentary on how it fits into the whole and what the effect of the section is or will be, along with information on commencement, regulations, definitions and devolution. The text is probably too detailed to use for “self training” on the Immigration Act 2016 or on the…

6th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

July 2017 immigration update podcast

Welcome to the July 2017 edition of the Free Movement immigration update podcast. This month I begin by running through a whole load of judgments and determinations, including from the Supreme Court on sham marriages, some cases on procedure and costs and some shocking cases on unlawful detention. I then turn to a series of short policy updates and with a quick mention for a detailed post on the rules on deportation for non-EU nationals – which are the rules which will apply to all foreign nationals after Brexit, of course. The material is all drawn from the July 2017 blog posts on Free Movement. If you would like to claim…

5th October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Guest post: citizenship for sale – at a cost stateless people can ill afford

Stateless people in the UK face enormous hurdles in the road to becoming British citizens. One of those barriers is the extraordinarily high cost of acquiring British citizenship, writes Asylum Aid’s Cynthia Orchard. The UK government has taken some steps to ensure its approach to statelessness complies with international law. In many respects, British nationality law complies with the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. Further, the UK introduced a statelessness determination procedure in 2013, which was an important step towards achieving compliance with the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons. There is, however, considerable room for improvement in the UK’s treatment of stateless persons. This…

5th October 2017 By Cynthia Orchard

CJEU on registration certificates and exclusion orders: implications for practice

Ovidiu-Mihaita Petrea emigrated from Romania to Greece, ready to build a new life there. However, he made a big mistake: he committed robbery and was sentenced by a Greek criminal court in 2011. Exclusion order and return Article 27 of Directive 2004/38 states that EU member states may limit free movement of EU citizens on grounds of public security, public policy, or public health. Accordingly, the Greek government ordered Mr Petrea’s return to Romania on 30 October 2011. His name was entered into the list of “undesirable aliens” – barring him from entry to Greece until 30 October 2018. Mr Petrea had been informed, in writing and in a language…

5th October 2017 By Paul Erdunast

Hospital orders and deportation

In Secretary of State for the Home Department v KE (Nigeria) [2017] EWCA Civ 382, the Court of Appeal tackled the narrow, but important, issue as to whether a non-British citizen who is convicted and sentenced to a hospital order with restrictions under sections 37 and 41 of the Mental Health Act 1983 is “a foreign criminal who has been sentenced to a period of imprisonment of at least four years” for the purposes of section 117C(6) of the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002, so that the public interest requires his deportation unless there are very compelling circumstances that mean that it would be a disproportionate interference with his rights under article 8 of the European Convention on…

4th October 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

Job ad: UK Migration Lawyers – Immigration barristers and caseworkers required

  IMMIGRATION BARRISTERS AND CASEWORKERS REQUIRED UK Migration Lawyers is excited to be seeking to recruit two Immigration barristers and / or caseworkers to join its Birmingham based team on a fixed term contract. We are seeking candidates with immigration law experience who are passionate, organised, self-motivated and who want to show their abilities in this fast paced and challenging environment. This position is an excellent opportunity for a barrister, solicitor or caseworker with at least 2 years’ hands on experience in immigration who are seeking to advance their career with the objective of gaining more knowledge, experience and abilities at a firm committed to the development of all staff….

3rd October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Permanent residence through incapacity to work: no UK derogation

The claimant in SSWP v NZ (ESA) [2017] UKUT 0360 (AAC) is a Polish national who worked in a chip shop. On 4 September 2017, the Upper Tribunal released a third interim decision in the case, relating to a very specific issue: had the UK derogated from Article 17 of Directive 2004/38 by the Accession (Immigration and Worker Registration) Regulations 2004? The claimant’s employment had been registered belatedly under the Worker Registration Scheme, with effect from December 2006. She continued working until March 2007, when she went on maternity leave. After that she had been unwell for a while and made unsuccessful attempts to return to work, but her employment was terminated in November 2007….

3rd October 2017 By Nath Gbikpi

June 2017 immigration update podcast

Welcome to the June 2017 edition of the Free Movement immigration update podcast. This month I’m starting with the current UK proposals on the future status of EU citizens in the UK and a few (!) problems with those plans, covering the major Supreme Court decision on the “deport first, appeal later” regime, taking a look at the new “safe return review” the Home Office now conducts before granting settlement to refugees and then whizzing through some important but fairly dry judgments on Dublin returns and subsidiary protection, service of immigration decisions, the law of appeals and automatic strike out of judicial review cases in the Upper Tribunal. The material…

3rd October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Home Office in breach of law over permanent residence waiting times

The Home Office has broken the law by failing to publish the waiting times faced by EU citizens trying to get residence documents. The Information Commissioner ruled that Amber Rudd’s department is in breach of the Freedom of Information Act, having sat on the request for seven months and counting. Free Movement’s founder and editor, Colin Yeo, wrote to the Home Office on 23 February asking for data showing average waiting times for the cards and certificates that prove an EU citizen’s right to live in the UK. By 30 March, officials at Marsham Street had acknowledged that the request would not be answered within the 20 working days demanded…

2nd October 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Mr Justice Peter Lane appointed new President of the Immigration and Asylum Chamber of the Upper Tribunal

The Right Honourable Sir Ernest Ryder, The Senior President of Tribunals has appointed Sir Peter Lane to be the Chamber President for the Upper Tribunal Immigration and Asylum Chamber with effect from 2 October 2017. This is the first “internal” appointment of an immigration tribunal judge to the top immigration judge role in my time in practice. Previous appointments since at least 1999 have always been from outside the existing immigration judiciary, including Sirs Andrew Collins, Duncan Ouseley, Henry Hodge, Nicholas Blake, and the outgoing president, Bernard McCloskey. President McCloskey will be much missed and I will be putting together a (positive!) review of his tenure. Any thoughts or (polite!)…

2nd October 2017 By Colin Yeo

Upper Tribunal slams First-tier in complex benefits appeal

“Oh dear. Oh dear. Oh dear.” This was the introductory paragraph of Upper Tribunal Judge Wikeley in AF v SSWP (DLA) (No.2) [2017] UKUT 366 (AAC). When a judge expresses himself in this manner – and when the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions supports all three grounds of appeal against a decision that went his way – you know something has gone badly wrong. The conduct of the case by the First-tier Tribunal left a lot to be desired, putting it mildly. The case was a complex, hotly contested social security case worth £50,000, with 90 minutes of video evidence and over 1,000 pages in the bundle. The First-tier…

29th September 2017 By Paul Erdunast

Citizens’ rights: update after fourth round of Brexit negotiations

The fourth round of Brexit negotiations are over, with some signs of progress on the future status of EU citizens living in the UK. At the end of August, the EU-UK joint comparison of negotiating positions on citizens’ rights showed some 30 issues highlighted in red, indicating no agreement. This has been cut by about half in the latest document, showing the position at the end of September. Enforcement: “direct effect” conceded, CJEU jurisdiction not David Davis uses the words May did not over implementing withdrawal agreement in domestic law: "Direct effect." — Matthew Holehouse (@mattholehouse) September 28, 2017 Both the Brexit Secretary, for the UK, and the European Commission chief…

28th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Tribunal: Home Office must prove present risk to deport EU citizens

In the very recent case of Arranz (EEA Regulations – deportation – test) [2017] UKUT 294 (IAC) President McCloskey set out the correct approach to EU law deportations. The official headnote instructs us: (i) The burden of proving that a person represents a genuine, present and sufficiently threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society under Regulation 21(5)(c) of the EEA Regulations rests on the Secretary of State. (ii) The standard of proof is the balance of probabilities. (iii) Membership of an organisation proscribed under the laws of a foreign country does not without more satisfy the aforementioned test. (iv) The “Bouchereau” exception is no longer good law: CS…

28th September 2017 By Colin Yeo

Immigration judge “wholly failing to meet standards”, Upper Tribunal finds

Three judges of the Upper Tribunal have examined 13 separate decisions of the same First-tier Tribunal judge and found them “wholly failing to meet the standards that are demanded by the office of a judge and expected by the parties”. The unreported judgment in AA069062014 & Ors. [2017] UKAITUR AA069062014 (30 August 2017) makes for profoundly uncomfortable reading. The panel, led by the Vice-President, said that “no more than the most basic principles of law are referred to in the decisions” of Judge Majid, “and even these seem to be quite often wrong”. There are many specific examples given. Three suffice to give a flavour of the whole. Each contains a quote from…

27th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Home Office offers dubious assurances on fingerprints and ID cards for EU citizens

Campaign group the3million has issued a statement on the latest plans for settled status following a meeting with the Home Office. Some clarifications were made during a meeting between the Home Office and the3million regarding some false information circulating around the future criteria required for all of us after Brexit to obtain the documentation providing evidence of our rights. The Home Office has confirmed in accordance with the Policy Paper (of 26th June 2017) and subsequent negotiations with the Commission on Citizens’ Rights its position that EU citizens: Will not have to prove CSI Will not have to meet an income threshold Will not have to submit finger prints Will not be…

26th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

Hostile environment: banks forced to check 70 million accounts

Banks and building societies are to carry out immigration checks on a reported 70 million bank accounts in accordance with the Immigration Act 2016, amending the Immigration Act 2014. The provision ordering this will come into force on 30 October 2017. Regulations introducing a code of practice have been laid down. For each account belonging to anyone illegally in the country, the bank must, under certain circumstances, notify the Home Office, who will then close it down or freeze it. This measure will make life harder for those in the country illegally. But at what cost? Like the rest of the hostile environment, it forces private entities to carry out complex immigration checks….

26th September 2017 By Paul Erdunast

What does Theresa May’s Florence speech mean for EU citizens?

Theresa May exercised her free movement rights with a trip to Florence on Friday to deliver a much-anticipated speech on Brexit. Conciliatory in tone and significant on the question of the ‘divorce bill’, the Prime Minister’s comments also touched on the rights of EU citizens in the UK, and on the future of free movement after Brexit. On the former, warm words were not accompanied by the practical proposals demanded by EU leaders. On the latter, a Brexit “implementation period” of around two years holds out the prospect of continued free movement until 2021, but questions remain about the operation of EU law during that period. Citizens’ rights: still no role…

26th September 2017 By Conor James McKinney

New Free Movement deputy editor appointed: Conor James McKinney

I am delighted to announce the appointment of Conor James McKinney as Deputy Editor for Free Movement. CJ, as he prefers to be known, joins Free Movement with a strong background in legal journalism and communication. He has written on legal affairs for the Times, the i, the Evening Standard and the popular Legal Cheek website. CJ has a particular interest and expertise in Brexit, and has appeared on BBC and LBC radio as a commentator. Before joining Free Movement, he coordinated legal coverage at the fact checking organisation Full Fact as a senior researcher. He holds degrees in law from Trinity College, Dublin and Queens’ College, Cambridge. CJ will…

25th September 2017 By Colin Yeo

Home Office launches new Assisted Digital service for online immigration applications

The Home Office has launched a new Assisted Digital service to help those who need it with online immigration applications. It is aimed at applicants who do not have the appropriate access, skills or confidence to complete an online immigration application form. The service does not offer immigration advice. The support available includes: Telephone support to complete the online form – you will be transferred to a skilled Migrant Help UK advisor who will help you complete your application form online. Face to face support at a library to access and complete the online form – you can either walk in at your convenience or book an appointed time with a…

25th September 2017 By Colin Yeo
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