Colin Yeo
Immigration and asylum barrister, blogger, writer and consultant at Garden Court Chambers in London and founder and editor of the Free Movement immigration law website.
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What does the Queen’s Speech say (and not say) about immigration and EU citizens?

The Queen’s Speech was today. This sets out the legislative agenda for the new Government and lists expected new Acts of Parliament the Government hopes to pass in the coming year. There are reports that this Queen’s Speech may be intended to cover a two year period, but with the likelihood of an early election it may end up being very short indeed. Either way, the agenda is dominated by Brexit to the exclusion of almost everything else. This will be the story of our country for the next decade or so: trying to sort out Brexit to the exclusion of all else. A new Immigration Bill is proposed. However,…

21st June 2017 By Colin Yeo

What will happen to immigration policy and law following the 2017 General Election?

It is the Queen’s Speech today. This sets out the legislative agenda for the coming Parliament in 2017 and 2018. But no party managed to win an overall majority in the General Election. We have what the political pundits and historians call a Hung Parliament in which there is a party which has more MPs than any other, but not enough MPs to outvote all of the other parties if they all voted together. This is going to make it very difficult for the new Government to pass primary legislation, by which I mean new Acts of Parliament. But any Government needs to look like it is doing something and…

21st June 2017 By Colin Yeo

What is the legal meaning of “refugee”?

This week is Refugee Week. The Free Movement blog is about communicating complex legal issues in immigration and asylum law in a clear way so I have amended and republishing this blog post explaining what a refugee actually is in legal terms. I have also collected together some of our previous blog posts about asylum issues. I hope you find it useful and interesting! I am also making my refugee law ebook freely available for this week. The ebook is a detailed examination of refugee law as it is understood and practiced in the UK. Use code “refugeeweek” as you are making a purchase and a 100% discount will be…

19th June 2017 By Colin Yeo

Supreme Court rules “deport first, appeal later” is unfair and unlawful

In R (Kiarie and Byndloss) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2017] UKSC 42 the Supreme Court has struck down “deport first, appeal later” certificates for two foreign criminals. The Home Office had made use of new rules in the Immigration Act 2014 which force some appellants to leave the UK before their appeal takes place, meaning that they are not present to give evidence. Of 1,175 cases in which these powers have so far been used, only 72 individuals attempted to pursue an appeal from abroad. None succeeded. The “deport first, appeal later” rules were originally applied only to foreign criminals facing deportation. However, the Immigration Act…

14th June 2017 By Colin Yeo

What does the Democratic Unionist Party think about immigration?

Picking through varous manifestos and public statements of the Democratic Unionist Party and its leading members reveals a few clues about the stance of the party on immigration issues. This may prove critical in the lifetime of the coming Government — whether that be days, weeks or months — because it is only with the support of the DUP that any new immigration legislation can be passed and the support of the DUP may be crucial if challenges are brought to immigration rules and regulations laid before Parliament. Before going further, though, bear in mind that immigration law is not a devolved issue so it is not something that parties…

13th June 2017 By Colin Yeo

Fundraising appeal for Refugee Advocacy Programme in Uganda

Team Gaenor needs your support to ensure refugees fleeing persecution, conflict and oppression can access Pan African Development Education And Advocacy Programme services, which supports and empowers them to rebuild their lives in Uganda. More refugees entered Uganda last year than crossed the Mediterranean: it is one of the world’s fastest growing refugee crises. 4,500 are arriving every day from Southern Sudan, joining those from neighbouring Somalia, Congo, Burundi, Eritrea and Ethiopia.  Against this backdrop, and with continuing cuts to funding for refugee services in Uganda, PADEAP Uganda is more important than ever. We continue to offer training, legal advice, psycho social support. We pioneered and run the only ‘refugee…

6th June 2017 By Colin Yeo

Court of Appeal dismisses challenge to rules on Adult Dependent Relatives

The Court of Appeal has dismissed the challenge brought by campaign group Britcits to the restrictive Immigration Rules on the admission to the UK of parents, grandparents and other adult dependent relatives. The case is BRITCITS v The Secretary of State for the Home Department [2017] EWCA Civ 368. On 9 July 2012, the Immigration Rules on parents, grandparents and other dependent relatives were fundamentally changed, making it virtually impossible for them to be admitted to the UK to join a carer. The main stumbling blocks are these paragraphs from Appendix FM: E-ECDR.2.4. The applicant or, if the applicant and their partner are the sponsor’s parents or grandparents, the applicant’s partner, must…

30th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

The hostile environment: what is it and who does it affect?

What is the hostile environment? The “hostile environment” for migrants is a package of measures designed to make life so difficult for individuals without permission to remain that they will not seek to enter the UK to begin with or if already present will leave voluntarily. It is inextricably linked to the net migration target; the hostile environment is intended to reduce inward migration and increase outward emigration. The hostile environment includes measures to limit access to work, housing, health care, bank accounts and to reduce and restrict rights of appeal against Home Office decisions. The majority of these proposals became law via the Immigration Act 2014, and have since been…

29th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Crowdfunding campaign for JCWI challenge to “right to rent” scheme

Can untrained landlords and agents tell if you have a legal right to be in the UK? Should unpaid landlords and agents have to do the Government’s job of immigration enforcement for them? If you look or sound ‘foreign’ why would a landlord take the risk of prison or a fine to let to you? JCWI has begun pre-action correspondence to ensure that the Right to Rent scheme is not rolled out further without a full evaluation of discrimination under the scheme and whether or not the scheme is working. Your pledge will help us: Fund our work, and possibly pay for experts, to prepare the evidence we and others have gathered for…

26th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Is the triggering of Article 50 a good argument for making a reference to The Court Of Justice now? – Monckton Chambers

Also well worth a read: As all readers of this post will know, the United Kingdom gave notice of its decision to withdraw from the EU on 29 March 2017. Under Article 50 TEU, that means that (subject to a different date being provided for in a withdrawal agreement or an extension by unanimity) the UK will cease to be subject to the Treaties on 30 March 2019.Unless any different provision is made in a withdrawal agreement, the Court of Justice of the EU will cease, on that date, to have jurisdiction to rule on questions of EU law referred to it by UK courts under Article 267 TFEU.Since the…

24th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

EU can point to clear precedents in Brexit court showdown | MLex market insight

Worth a read: The Brexit negotiations are heading for an early battle. The remaining EU states on Monday agreed that the rights of EU citizens living in the UK after its withdrawal should fall under the jurisdiction of the EU Court of Justice, or CJEU. The UK wants to guarantee individuals’ rights, but rejects the oversight of the bloc’s top-tier court in Luxembourg. “The simple truth is: we are leaving,” Brexit secretary David Davis has said. “We are going to be outside the reach of the European court.” European Commission negotiators will be able to cite previous rulings that have set precedents and conditions for granting the CJEU jurisdiction over…

24th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

The case of Stoly Jankovic: what are the 10 and 20 year rules on long residence?

The case of Stoly Jankovic recently attracted a lot of press attention and a great deal of sympathy. He had apparently been living and working in the UK since 1991, for a period of 26 years. How can it be right that he be detained for removal after all that time? Well, the rules on acquiring lawful status after long residence are very tightly drawn and it sounds as if he has fallen foul of them. I have been meaning to write a post on the long residence rules for as long as I can remember, and this seems like a good opportunity. How did Mr Jankovic find himself in this predicament?…

24th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Recruitment ends tomorrow for 65 new salaried judges of the First-tier Tribunal

An exercise to identify candidates to recommend for the post of salaried judge of the First-tier Tribunal opens today. There are 45 immediate vacancies and 20 that are expected to arise in the near future. Unlike previous exercises for the First-tier Tribunal, which identified candidates for a specific chamber, this exercise will identify candidates who can be deployed to any of the First-tier Tribunal Chambers. This is an excellent opportunity for solicitors, barristers and chartered legal executives from all areas of the professions, as candidates do not need to have previous judicial experience to apply. Most initial assignments are expected to be to the Immigration and Asylum Chamber and the…

23rd May 2017 By Colin Yeo

March 2017 immigration update podcast

Welcome to the March 2017 edition of the Free Movement immigration update podcast. This episode I start with the some general news and updates, I then run through a whole load of cases, most of which I think are Court of Appeal authorities, and then end with a look at Statement of Changes HC1078 and then a few of the new style of more detailed blog posts on the Immigration Rules, this time covering several more of the general grounds for refusal. These have now been collected together into a training course for those who are interested. The material is all drawn from the March 2017 blog posts on Free Movement. If you would…

22nd May 2017 By Colin Yeo

The interregnum: 11 years without free movement from 1962 to 1973

There was a short period of just 11 years between 1962 and 1973 when free movement of people did not apply in the UK. Other than during that time, businesses and public services have had easy access to workers from other countries. Following Brexit, the UK will be embarking on a similar period. If the full force of UK immigration law is brought to bear on all foreign nationals, this will require major adjustments in economy and society. One wonders how long the interregnum might last this time. This blog post is based on notes for a talk I was due to give last week but had to pull out of…

19th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Book review: Bureaucracy, Law and Dystopia in the United Kingdom’s Asylum System by John Campbell

The first thing to say about this book is that it has a really excellent and entirely appropriate title. The contents do not fail to deliver. Campbell seeks to place immigration and asylum decision making by officials and judges within a wider context, taking into account not just the internalised processes and self perception of individuals operating (or being operated by) the system but also the institutional and cultural influences at work. Campbell is particularly interested in the role, direct and indirect, of the Home Office at all stages in the process, which he finds to be all pervading. Very little academic research or writing has been done on the…

19th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Immigration law and policy after the election: unfortunately, the Conservative manifesto tells us what is coming

Some people are posting up comparisons of different immigration policies of different parties. I cannot see the point. The result of the next General Election is a foregone conclusion and has been since Jeremy Corbyn was re-elected leader of the Labour Party. Surprisingly, some on the left even now do not understand this, but the opinion polls are very, very clear. Labour has edged up a little in the latest polls but the gap remains oceanic in scale. And opinion polls historically overestimate Labour support, not underestimate it. So, if we want to know what is going to happen in immigration law and policy after the election, all we have…

18th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Capparrelli (EEA Nationals – British Nationality) [2017] UKUT 162 (IAC) -Comment by Ian Macdonald QC

Ian Macdonald QC has sent in an interesting note on the controversial Capparrelli determination. For background, see original Free Movement write up here: Tribunal finds Home Office has wrongly issued British passports to EU citizens and their children. Section 1 of the British Nationality Act 1981 (the “1981 Act”), the subject matter whereof is “Acquisition by birth or adoption”, provides: “(1) A person born in the United Kingdom after commencement, or in a qualifying territory on or after the appointed day, shall be a British citizen if at the time of the birth his father or mother is— … (b) settled in the United Kingdom or that territory.” Section 1 came…

18th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Tribunal rules a Big Issue seller has no right of residence in EU law

Seems like a dubious decision to me on the facts, but it cannot be faulted for rehearsing the relevant law quite thoroughly. The lady in question was earning a steady £50 per week working a 40 hour week and the First-tier dismissed the appeal on the basis that the work was not “genuine and effective”: 19. I considered the totality of the appellant’s family financial circumstances. The appellant’s rent was met by Housing Benefit and she claims Tax Credits of about £150 per week. The appellant’s earnings from selling the Big Issue make up the remainder of the family income and I hold on the balance of probabilities that the appellant’s…

18th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

When can a tribunal be forced to pay the costs of judicially reviewing it?

“Not often” is the answer. Only if the tribunal acts in an improper way. Incompetence or unlawfulness is not sufficient. In this case, R (on the application of Gudanaviciene) v Immigration and Asylum First Tier Tribunal [2017] EWCA Civ 352, an EU national was facing deportation. She appealed the decision to deport but no legal aid was available to assist her and she could not afford to pay for legal representation. A good firm of solicitors, Turpin Miller in Oxford, agreed to take on her case but only to the extent that they would, unfunded, help her apply to the Legal Aid Agency for “Exceptional Case Funding”. Her application for…

18th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Tribunal gives guidance on general principles in deprivation of citizenship appeals

Interesting case on deprivation of citizenship, not least as the Home Office spectacularly messed up by refusing on an unjustifiable grounds when there was a justifiable one staring them in the face. Official headnote: (i) The Secretary of State has two separate powers of deprivation, exercisable on different grounds, as set out in sub-ss (2) and (3) of s 40 of the British Nationality Act 1981. (ii) The power under s 40(2) arises only if the Secretary of State is satisfied that deprivation is conducive to the public good. (iii) The power under sub-s (3) arises only if the Secretary of State is satisfied that registration or naturalisation was obtained…

17th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

A Pictorial Guide to Discussing Immigration in Polite Company by JCWI

Excellent from JCWI, and timely too given the election season is upon us: This year, whether at a political hustings, social event or garden fete, it will be seemly to debate immigration with good manners and grace. Brexit, future immigration policy, and integration could all be stumbling blocks for uncoached politicians and journalists. If this seems daunting, never fear! Here are five crucial points of etiquette, to assist you in approaching immigration with a very British sense of politeness. Source: A Guide to Discussing Immigration in Polite Company | Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants

16th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

New CJEU case extends Zambrano rights of residence, emphasises best interests of children

In a new case, Chavez-Vilchez and Others v Netherlands C-133/15, the Court of Justice of the European Union has significantly extended Zambrano rights beyond those so far recognised by the Home Office and UK courts. The case offers far better guidance than was available in previous cases and emphasises that the impact on children is a primary consideration. Background The case involved seven mothers who had applied to the Dutch authorities for residence on the basis of being the primary carers of young Dutch children. They had all been refused residency because it was said that the fathers of the children could care for them, and therefore the children would not…

16th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Tribunal says foreign law is a question of fact normally determined by expert evidence

The Home Office proposed to remove the father of a family and three children to India and the wife and mother to Pakistan, thus separating the family. The family argued that they would be permanently separated because the immigration laws of India would not allow entry for the mother. The Home Office argued to the contrary, but the evidence on which the Home Office arguments was based was found to be, um, a bit flawed: It follows that the cornerstone of the Secretary of State’s case crumbles and collapses. The main pillar upon which the Secretary of State has sought to justify the impugned removal decisions has been shown to be devoid…

15th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Help needed with research project: “Vicarious Traumatisation: The Impact on Solicitors Working with Traumatised Asylum Seekers”

Vicarious or secondary traumatisation refers to the emotional impact of bearing witness and engaging in an empathic way with traumatic material. As a solicitor or caseworker, working with asylum seekers and refugees can be extremely rewarding, but also very emotionally demanding. This electronic research project (conducted by Line Rønning, a psychology student from the University of Copenhagen and Jocelyn Blumberg, clinical psychologist at the Traumatic Stress Clinic, Camden & Islington NHS Foundation Trust), aims to explore the hypothesis that despite training in maintaining a professional distance and an objective stance, solicitors and caseworkers working with trauma survivors may experience vicarious traumatisation. This may be due to bearing witness and engaging…

12th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

The Children’s Society: Evidence Needed on The Impacts of LASPO on Separated and Unaccompanied Migrant Children’s Access to Justice

The children’s charity, The Children’s Society, and the University of Bedfordshire, are working together to document the impacts of LASPO (2012) on unaccompanied and separated migrant children. As such, they are looking for legal practitioners – OISC, solicitors, barristers and QC’s – to take part in a survey and or interviews about the impacts of LASPO (2012) on the immigration cases and circumstances of unaccompanied and separated migrant children. They will be using this evidence to feed into the pending review of LASPO but also in a strategic litigation case that the Children’s Society have been pursuing against the Lord Chancellor to bring separated / unaccompanied migrant children back into the scope of legal aid.  The…

12th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada guidelines on cases involving sexual orientation and gender identity and expression

1.1 The purpose of this Guideline is to promote greater understanding of cases involving sexual orientation and gender identity and expression (SOGIE) and the harm individuals may face due to their non-conformity with socially accepted SOGIE norms. This Guideline addresses the particular challenges individuals with diverse SOGIE may face in presenting their cases before the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) and establishes guiding principles for decision-makers in adjudicating cases involving SOGIE. 1.2 This Guideline applies to all four divisions of the IRB, namely, the Immigration Division (ID), the Immigration Appeal Division (IAD), the Refugee Protection Division (RPD), and the Refugee Appeal Division (RAD). 1.3 This Guideline applies to…

8th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Job ad: Solicitor / IAAS Level 2 Caseworker at JCWI (full time)

Do you want to play an important role in a high profile national charity? JCWI (Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants) is looking for a dynamic and committed Solicitor or Level 2 caseworker with at least 2-3 years’ experience of working in immigration and asylum law to join our expanding legal department. This is a unique opportunity for a lawyer to influence policy as well as assist clients. You will assist in manning our specialist advice line, funded by Trust for London, which runs three mornings a week. This is designed to give advice and assistance to undocumented migrants. You will also be involved in strategic discussions on how…

8th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Waiting time in the immigration tribunal now 83 weeks for some appeals

The latest tribunal statistics, published in March 2017, show that the average waiting time for appeals to be heard in the immigration tribunal is now 48 weeks. This is the time between the appeal being lodged and the appeal being promulgated, I understand. The breakdown for different types of appeal reveals major disparities between different types of appeal, though, with waiting times for entry clearance appeals — for example for spouses or children applying to join family members in the UK — as high as 83 weeks. That is over a year and a half. With 51% of all entry clearance appeals being allowed in Q3 2016, that is a very…

5th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

February 2017 immigration update podcast

Welcome to the February 2017 edition of the Free Movement immigration update podcast. This episode I start with two major developments, namely the coming into force of new EEA immigration regulations and the judgment of the Supreme Court in the MM case. I run through some Home Office and enforcement news, cover some bits of immigration rule analysis we added in Febrary and end with a few tribunal cases. The material is all drawn from the February 2017 blog posts on Free Movement. If you would like to claim CPD points for reading the material and listening to this podcast, sign up here as a Free Movement Member. There are now over 40 CPD hours…

4th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Guidance from tribunal on strike out powers and appeal to Court of Appeal as remedy

Official headnote: (i) A decision of the Upper Tribunal refusing to exercise its power to reinstate a judicial review claim which has been struck out may be the subject of an application for permission to appeal to the Court of Appeal. (ii) Such a decision, given its nature and consequences, is not to be equated with a mere case management decision. (iii) Every decision upon an application to reinstate must give effect to the overriding objective. (iv) Rule 8 of the Tribunal Procedure (Upper Tribunal) Rules 2008 provides the only mechanism for challenging a strike out order. Rule 43 has no application in this context. The directions in these and…

4th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

New Home Office policy: Exclusion from the UK

Important if dealing with cases involving exclusion from the UK: This guidance has been completely re-formatted and deals with the exclusion of both non-Economic European Area (non-EEA) nationals and European Economic Area (EEA) nationals and their family members. It replaces Exclusion decisions and exclusion orders guidance which has been archived. It includes: advice on the Authority to Carry Scheme 2015 explanation of unacceptable behaviour updated guidance on rights of appeal advice on notification of decisions advice on excluding EEA nationals or their family members under the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2016 advice on deprivation of citizenship in exclusion cases Just after we put out a detailed post and new course…

4th May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Why the UK and EU cannot easily agree on EU citizens’ rights: UK vs EU law

Theresa May refused to guarantee the rights of EU citizens living in the UK but did at least assure them that their situation would be a early negotiating priority. That perhaps was not terribly reassuring given that Theresa May also suggested that everyone should prepare for the UK to crash out of the EU with no deal at all and then called an election which has inevitably delayed the negotiations. Already it is reported that the talks on the rights of EU citizens seem to have hit a significant stumbling block. This is by no means insoluable and negotiations are by their very nature bound to include differences of approach which need…

3rd May 2017 By Colin Yeo

Tribunal gives guidance on revocation of deportation orders after 10 years

Official headnote: (i) In cases involving convictions for an offence for which the person was sentenced to a period of imprisonment of less than 4 years, the Secretary of State’s policy, as expressed in paragraph 391(a) of the Immigration Rules, is that the public interest does not require continuation of a deportation order after a period of ten years has elapsed. (ii) However, paragraph 391(a) allows the Secretary of State to consider on a case by case basis whether a deportation order should be maintained. The mere fact of past convictions is unlikely to be sufficient to maintain an order if the ‘prescribed period’ has elapsed. Strong public policy reasons…

28th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Book review: Nationality and Statelessness in the International Law of Refugee Status by Eric Fripp

In this thoughtful and full exploration of refugee law, nationality and statelessness Eric Fripp explores some interesting and underdeveloped themes. Added to his earlier and excellent work from 2015, The Law and Practice of Expulsion and Exclusion from the United Kingdom, Eric is establishing himself as pre-eminent in this important and growing area of work. The title of Fripp’s latest work, Nationality and Statelessness in the International Law of Refugee Status, almost misleads the casual legal bookshop browser, given that large parts of the book cover the more general topics of the law of refugee status and principles of interpretation. It would be a mistake to see this book purely…

27th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Calling evidence “self serving” not sufficient reason for disregarding it

Official headnote: (1) The expression “self-serving” is, to a large extent, a protean one. The expression itself tells us little or nothing. What is needed is a reason, however brief, for that designation. For example, a letter written by a third party to an applicant for international protection may be “self-serving” because it bears the hallmarks of being written to order, in circumstances where the applicant’s case is that the letter was a spontaneous warning. (2) Whilst a statement from a family member is capable of lending weight to a claim, the issue will be whether, looked at in the round, it does so in the particular case in question….

26th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Tribunal finds Home Office has wrongly issued British passports to EU citizens and their children

In a controversial determination, the President of the Upper Tribunal Immigration and Asylum Chamber, Mr Justice McCloskey, has found that the Home Office has wrongly issued British passports to hundreds or even thousands of children of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens born in the UK before 2 October 2000. The case is Capparrelli (EEA Nationals – British Nationality) [2017] UKUT 162 (IAC). If the determination is correct, which is questionable, it could also mean that almost no EU or EEA citizen could ever have qualified for British citizenship and that British citizenship may have been wrongly conferred on tens of thousands of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens. Remarkably, considering the exceptionally broad impact…

26th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Reference made to CJEU on extended family members, Surinder Singh and appeal rights

The case is UK v Banger C-89/17. Text of the reference here: Do the principles contained in the decision in Immigration Appeal Tribunal and Surinder Singh, ex parte Secretary of State for the Home Department (Case C-370/90) [1992] operate so as to require a Member State to issue or, alternatively, facilitate the provision of a residence authorisation to the non-Union unmarried partner of a EU citizen who, having exercised his Treaty right of freedom of movement to work in a second Member State, returns with such partner to the Member State of his nationality? Alternatively, is there a requirement to issue or, alternatively, facilitate the provision of such residence authorisation…

26th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Report finds refugees made homeless when granted refugee status

There is an excellent report out today by the All Party Parliamentary Group on Refugees about the problems faced when a refugee is granted refugee status following an asylum claim. Essentially, central government asylum support and accommodation is immediately terminated and local authority support takes time to become available. This leaves many refugees homeless and destitute just as they are finally recognised as a refugee. The report recommends: The creation of a National Refugee Integration Strategy, to be overseen by a specially appointed cross-departmental Government Minister for Refugees. More than doubling the so-called move on period from Home Office support, the time given to newly recognised refugees to find new…

25th April 2017 By Colin Yeo

Home Office suggests EU nationals sign up for email alerts not apply for residence documents

The Home Office is now advising EU nationals to sign up for Government email alerts rather than applying for residence documents as proof of status. The guidance was issued on 7 April 2017 and is a tacit admission that the Home Office is overwhelmed by applications from EU citizens and their families. The guidance is not mandatory; EU citizens can still apply for residence documents if they want to, and indeed EU citizens have to apply for these documents if they want to apply for naturalisation as British citizens. The latest quarterly immigration statistics certainly showed a dramatic rise in applications for permanent residence documents: Given that the Government has: refused…

25th April 2017 By Colin Yeo
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